一、2010年英國國會改選,面對經濟危機議題,工黨(labour party)提出的藥方是凱因斯理論(Keynesian theory);保守黨(conservative party)則以限縮政府的權力,擴張社會的功能(from big government to big society)為策略(Smith,2010)。選舉結果,工黨結束長達13年的執政,交出政權給保守黨與自由民主黨(liberal democratic)合組的新聯合政府。政黨輪替後的新政府,開啟一連串的改革措施,在強化社會功能性(big society)理念下,積極減少政府的職能,諸如通過《地方主義法》(Localism Act 2011)與《警察改革與社會責任法》(Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011)等。而新政府一連串改革,不但改變了原有的國家(state)與社會(society)的均衡關係,更讓英國的警政制度大幅變革。

二、依David Bayley於Police Function, Structure, and Control in Western Europe and North America: Comparative and Historical Studies (1979)一文指出當代警察主要功能或任務為:(1) protecting life and property (U.S.); (2) enforcing the criminal law (Britain) ; (3) investigating criminal offenses (France) ; (4) patrolling public places (Germany) ; (5) advising about crime prevention (Canada) ; (6) conducting prosecutions (Britain) ; (7) sentencing for minor offenses (Germany) ; (8) maintaining order and decorum in public places by directing, interrupting, and warning (U.S.) ; (9) guarding persons and facilities (France) ;(10) regulating traffic (Norway); (1 1) controlling crowds (Germany) ; (12) regulating and suppressing vice (U.S.) ; (1 3) counseling juveniles (Netherlands) ; (14) gathering information about political and social life (France) ; (15 ) monitoring elections(Italy) ; (1 6) conducting counter-espionage (France) ; (17) issuing ordinances (Germany) ; (18) inspecting premises (Germany) ; (19) issuing permits and licenses (Britain); (20) serving summonses (Norway); (21) supervising jails (Norway); (22) impounding animals and lost property (Britain) ; (2 3) advising members of the public and referring them to other agencies (Scotland) ; (24) caring for the incapacitated (US.); (25) promoting community crime-prevention activities (Scotland); and (26) participating in policy councils of government (France);警察任務及權責的擴張,正是大政府(big government)的象徵。

三、英國的新警政制度係以2011年的《警察改革與社會責任法》為核心,該法包含5個主要政策領域:(1)警察課責與治理(police accountability and governance);(2)酒精特許(alcohol licensing);(3)國會廣場抗議規範(regulation of protests around Parliament Square);(4)濫用藥物(misuse of drugs);(5)對國際罪刑費罪者已非公開方式控訴之逮捕令(the issue of arrest warrants in respect of private prosecutions for universal jurisdiction offences)等。

四、2012年11月15日,英國選民選出了第1屆警察及犯罪事務專員(Police and Crime Commissioners),新選出的警察及犯罪事務專員,有權制定各警政區之政策、決定預算配置、任免警察局長,自此英國警政制度進入一個新的里程碑。

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