一、依中央社2012年8月19日報導:【美國政治長期以來劃分為紅對藍,今年選舉中所有議題都觸及分隔兩黨的深淵。但一項新調查顯示,這只揭露現象的一部份,兩黨內部又分成四、五個群體。這項調查由華盛頓郵報(The Washington Post)和凱撒家庭基金會(Kaiser Family Foundation)聯手進行。調查顯示,兩黨兩極化的現狀是歷來最高,無論11月由誰當選,都必須面對這種情況。「華盛頓郵報」報導,這項隨機抽樣3000多名成年人的民意調查顯示,兩黨內部有四、五個群體,雖然就若干核心議題意見類似,但是世界觀、經濟處境和政策態度可能相當不同。整體來說,共和黨基礎現在比較偏南方,態度比較保守。民主黨支持者目前女性占過半數,草根運動家的聲音較大。政黨兩極化過去被視為民選官員和政治菁英的苦惱,現在則儼然成為主流。華盛頓郵報、凱撒家庭基金會和哈佛大學14年前做過類似調查,當時有41%共和黨人、45%民主黨人自認持有「強烈」黨派見解。在新調查中,比例分別提高為65%和62%。兩黨支持者對聯邦政府的意見相當分歧。認為政府對日常生活控制太多的共和黨人,強烈認為的人從1998年調查的39%,增加24個百分點到63%。強烈反對這個說法的民主黨人,比例增為上次的兩倍。主張管制企業對保護公共利益是必要的,民主黨人的比例是共和黨人的兩倍。多數共和黨人認為,管制弊多於利。共和黨人認為,在創造就業機會上,削減赤字比增加開支更重要。民主黨人的主張則相反。兩黨在墮胎和同性戀婚姻上的分歧明顯。認為墮胎在所有或大多數情況下都該合法的,民主黨人的比例是共和黨人的兩倍。在同志婚姻上,比例類似。對某些問題的回答,兩黨的意見則沒有太大的分歧。以移民為例,將近1/2共和黨人和3/4民主黨人都說,他們支持允許非法移民申請合法地位的政策。而6/10共和黨人和將近9/10民主黨人表示,政府應該管制發電廠、汽車和工廠的溫室氣體排放,以降低全球暖化。在國際議題上也有類似共識。兩黨中很少人說,美國該在世界扮演領導角色。多數表示,美國該扮演主要、而非領導角色。兩黨中約各有1/4主張,美國該扮演次要角色。

 

二、依華盛頓郵報(The Washington Post)2012年8月19日報導(By Dan Balz and Jon Cohen):【American politics has long been defined as red vs. blue, and everything about the 2012 election speaks to the chasm that separates the two parties. But a major new study highlights how those divisions are only a part of the dynamic shaping the political landscape. The study, conducted by The Washington Post and the Kaiser Family Foundation, underscores that the gulf between Republicans and Democrats has never been wider. Partisan polarization now presents a potentially insurmountable barrier to governing for whoever wins the White House in November. But the study — based on a poll of more than 3,000 randomly selected adults — also illuminates in striking new ways another reality about the contours of politics. Like families, the parties coalesce to repel threats from outside — typified this summer by the scorched-earth tactics of the campaigns of President Obama and Republican Mitt Romney. But both parties also are fractious coalitions of people who may converge on some core issues but whose worldviews, economic situations and attitudes on policy are far from uniform. These disparate and ever-evolving coalitions present challenges for both Obama and Romney. They are why Romney struggled through much of the Republican nominating contest to win over key parts of his party and only united the GOP coalition by picking Rep. Paul Ryan (R-Wis.) as his vice presidential running mate. It is why Obama has faced dissonance and disappointment over the way he has governed from some elements of the Democratic Party, particularly many liberals who nonetheless back him strongly for reelection. The two major parties will be on display over the coming weeks at their national conventions. Republicans go first, starting Aug. 27 in Tampa. Democrats meet in Charlotte the following week. Both will try to project an image of unity as they draw distinctions with their opponents. But Romney’s selection of Ryan is a reminder that the parties recognize success in November depends in part on keeping their coalitions together and energized. The Post-Kaiser survey examined the breadth and diversity of the electorate to explore the changing shape of a Republican coalition that has become more Southern in its base and more conservative in its views, and yet encompasses groups with significant disagreements over whether confrontation or cooperation with the Democrats is the preferred path for governing. The study looks, too, at a Democratic Party that, while women make up a clear majority of supporters and grass-roots activists have a large voice, is a coalition of groups with divergent views on government regulation of the economy, the size of government, the role of religion in public life and such hot-button social issues as abortion and same-sex marriage. This article focuses on those Americans who, when asked, say they identify with either the Republican or Democratic Party. A later article will look at those Americans who call themselves independent — a fast-growing part of the electorate — and explore the question of just how independent they really are.

 

三、詳細的問卷及民調結果,請連結至以下網址:http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/polling/democrats-republicans-many-stripes/2012/08/19/91971d0e-e984-11e1-9739-eef99c5fb285_print.html

 

 

 

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